Vitamin D: Health Benefits, Sources and Deficiency

Vitamin D is also known as {calciferol}. It is crucial to the body’s capacity to control calcium and phosphorus levels. In addition to this, it contributes to the development of robust and healthy bones. You won’t find this D vitamin in many meals, but you can get it from fortified milk, fish, and other supplements.

Some foods naturally contain vitamin D, though it can be added to others or taken as a supplement. It is also made when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin and start the process of making the vitamin.

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Vitamin D is only in some foods. Calciferol can be as D2 or D3 in food and supplements.

A. Vitamin D2 source

1. Fish

Vitamin D2 is present in most healthy fish. Sockeye salmon, which live in the Pacific Ocean, has the most of it. Other fish that are good sources of calciferol is:

  • mackerel
  • tuna
  • cod
  • shrimp
  • salmon

2. Oil from cod liver

Cod liver oil is available in the livers of cod and other similar fish. It has a lot of vitamin E and vitamin A and is a great source. 

3. Added to Milk

Almost all pasteurized milk has Vitamin D2 added to it. However, most other dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, don’t have Vitamin D2. 

4. Eggs

Whole eggs have a lot of vitamins, like Vitamin D2, in them. However, even though egg whites are often used in place of whole eggs, they are not a good source of Vitamin D2 because it dissolves in fat and is only in the yolk.

5. Orange Juice

Vitamin-fortified orange juice can be a good way for children who are picky eaters to get Vitamin D2. Most kids like to drink juice, and orange juice is one of their favorites. Read the label to find out what vitamins are in the food.

6. Cereal

Most of the big cereal companies add vitamins, like Vitamin D2. Check out cereals with whole grains and less than 5g of sugar per serving. Even though high-sugar cereals with lots of frosting and marshmallows may have vitamins, that doesn’t make them a good choice.

B. Vitamin D3 sources

When people are out in the sun, their body makes vitamin D3. The body releases vitamin D from its stores and sends it through the bloodstream if exposed to UV rays. More UV light means that your body makes more vitamin D3. But you must be careful because too much sun can cause skin cancer. Vitamin D3 is present in some foods, like milk and some orange juices. Sources are ;

  • Sunlight made mushrooms grow
  • Herring
  • Fresh fish
  • Mackerel and halibut
  • Cod liver oil
  • Egg yolks
  • Sardines
  • Beer liver

Health Benefits of Vitamin D

1. Bone Health:

High-dose vitamin D may prevent fractures in older adults. A systematic review examined the effect of calciferol supplements with or without calcium on hip fractures in older men and postmenopausal women 65+. Vitamin D with calcium showed some fracture protection. In addition, 800–5,000 international units per day of calciferol improve bone health. Low vitamin D can cause bone softening or rickets.

Deficits increase the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Vitamin D improves musculoskeletal health by reducing fractures and falls in older adults.

2. Supporting immune health:

Getting enough vitamin D may help the immune system work well and lower the risk of autoimmune diseases. There are calciferol receptors on our immune cells, and studies have shown that vitamin D helps the immune system in many ways. Researchers think not getting enough calciferol for a long time could lead to autoimmune diseases like diabetes, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis.

3. Vitamin D may regulate mood and reduce Facilitates hormones:

Vitamin D works in our bodies like a hormone and affects how our brains work. Deficient people seem more likely to have depression, seasonal affective disorder, severe mood changes during PMS, insomnia, and anxiety. Low levels of D3 can affect how the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands work, which can stop the production of testosterone and estrogen.

4. It might support weight loss:

When obese, people follow a weight loss diet plan and take vitamin D supplements. As a result, they lose more weight and fat mass than those who only follow the diet plan. In addition, calciferol appears to affect body mass index. However, no evidence taking supplements can aid in weight loss.

5. Helps Fight Heart Disease

Vitamin D is essential for keeping inflammation and blood pressure in the body at healthy levels. Taking calciferol supplements hasn’t been shown to lower the risk of heart disease, but researchers are still looking into whether they might decrease heart disease complications. People who don’t get enough vitamins are more likely to get heart failure, coronary artery disease, and atrial fibrillation.

Those with severe vitamin D deficiencies are more susceptible to coronary artery disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

6. Cancer prevention

Calciferol inhibits tumor growth and slows its spread. Higher vitamin D levels are linked to decreased colon, pancreatic, prostate, and other cancer rates in humans. Calciferol insufficiency is linked to breast, colon, colorectal, bladder, and prostate cancers. Improving vitamin D and calcium nutritional status improves postmenopausal women’s cancer risk, according to studies.

7. Manages blood sugar, prevents diabetes

Vitamin D deficiency may impair pancreatic beta-cell activity and cause insulin resistance, leading to Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A 2015 study found that calciferol replacement improves type 2 diabetes incidence, control, and complications. Calciferol helps pancreas cells produce insulin. The majority of study participants didn’t have calciferol insufficiency. Two years after supplementation, vitamin D blood levels were 54.3 ng/mL versus 28.2 ng/L.

A 2.5-year follow-up showed no significant changes in the T2DM level. This is in line with the idea that those with adequate blood levels may not benefit from more vitamin D, but those with low blood levels may.

Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency happens when your body doesn’t have enough calciferol to run all the necessary processes.

How does our body make this vitamin?

Active vitamin D comes from sunlight, a specific type of cholesterol in our skin that transforms into the liver and kidneys. It is a highly complex process. 7-dehydrocholesterol is a type of cholesterol that is available in our skin. When UVB rays with wavelengths between 290 and 315nm hit 7-dehydrocholesterol, they change it into pre-vitamin. The kidneys add more hydroxyl groups to vitamin D3 to make calcitriol, the active vitamin form. 

What are the signs of not getting enough vitamin D?

Vitamin D deficiency starts with vague symptoms, so most people don’t know they have it until their doctor orders a blood test to check for it. However, signs show that calciferol affects your bones, mood, and immune system. 

Some of these symptoms are:

  • Back or bone ache
  • Tiredness 
  • Frequent infections (such as colds or flu)
  • Hair loss
  • Depression.
  • Muscle pain
  • Osteoporosis (bone density scans show bone loss)
  • Bad dental health
  • Long-lasting wounds
  • Memory loss
  • Cancer (colon)                             
  • Cardiovascular disese
  • Kidney disease
  • Asthma in children


800 IU is vitamin D’s daily value (DV) (20 mcg). According to the nutrition facts label on food packages, the amount of calciferol is given as a percentage of the DV. Therefore, it tells you how much vitamin D the food will provide you for the day. A study of pregnant women found that having enough calciferol may help reduce anxiety symptoms, improve sleep quality, and help prevent postpartum depression.


Even though UV light from the sun can help our bodies make vitamin D, that might not be the best way to meet your needs. The best way to ensure you get enough of the vitamin is to eat foods containing calciferol or take vitamin D supplements.

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This information is not meant to provide medical advice or replace a personal physician’s advice or treatment. All readers of this information, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should check with their doctors before initiating any nutrition, supplement, or lifestyle program. In addition, the statements and goods on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Vitamin C: Sources, Recommendation, and Importance

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that you can get from fruits and veggies. Also, the body needs it to make bones, build blood vessels, and keep the skin in good shape.

 Vitamin C is ascorbic acid and water-soluble, meaning the body can only store a small amount at once. Because of this, the body needs vitamin C every day.


Citrus fruits: Of all citrus fruits, oranges have the most vitamins, but grapefruit, lemons, and limes can also help you get what you need for the day. In a cup of chopped red peppers, there are 190 milligrams of these vitamins, while in a half-cup of chopped yellow peppers, there are 155 milligrams. 

Dark green vegetables: Brussels sprouts and broccoli are two examples of dark green vegetables full of this vitamin. 

Tomatoes: Sun-dried tomatoes, which have about 40 milligrams per 100 grams, have the most of this vitamin. For example, there are 28.78 milligrams in a medium red tomato and 23.4 milligrams in a medium green tomato.

Kiwi fruit: This sweet little fruit has 132 milligrams of vitamin C, almost twice as much as oranges


The National Institute of Health says that mature adults over the age of 19 should take: • Men, 90 mg daily; • Women, 75 mg per day; • Pregnant women, 85 mg per day; • Breastfeeding women, 120 mg daily.

Adequate Intakes (AIs) are what the NIH recommends for kids:

• Babies aged 0 to 6 months: 40 mg per day. • Babies aged 7 to 12 months: 50 mg per day.

RDAs for vitamin C for teens and children are • Toddlers ages 1–3: 15 mg per day • Children ages 4–8: 25 mg per day • Children ages 9–13: 45 mg per day • Young adults ages 14–18: 75 mg per day • Female teens ages 14–18: 65 mg per day.


Wound healing: Collagen contains vitamin C, a protein that is an integral part of connective tissue and helps wounds heal. Because of this, wound healing can’t happen without this vitamin.

Immune System: Vitamin C helps the immune system fight diseases and infections. Insufficiency of this vitamin weakens your immune system, and you’re more likely to get sick.

For teeth, bones, and cartilage: It helps fix and keep bones, teeth, and cartilage in good shape (the rubbery material that covers the ends of bones). People with osteoarthritis might also lose less cartilage if they take vitamin C.

Side Effects

Vitamin C pills taken by mouth are usually safe when taken correctly. But if you take too much of this vitamin, you might get sick, throw up, or have diarrhea; have heartburn; stomach pains or bloating; feel tired or sleepy; or even have trouble sleeping; get a headache; flush, or have a headache.

Some people who take vitamin C by mouth can get kidney stones, especially if they take a lot of it. Also, if you take more than 2,000 milligrams of oral supplements daily for a long time, you are more likely to have serious side effects.

Before getting any medical tests, tell your doctor you are taking these vitamin supplements. High levels of vitamin C could change the results of some tests like tests to see if stool contains blood or to check for diabetes.

Deficiency symptoms of Vitamin C

The main sign of a lack of this vitamin is scurvy. But besides scurvy, there are other things to watch out for:

• Fatigue • Slow healing of wounds • Constant pain • Swelling • Weakened bones • Low immune function • Hairs that look like corkscrews

Weight gain, rough, dry skin, shortness of breath, weakened blood vessels, depression, bleeding gums, loss of teeth, anemia, bruises easily, and red spots.


Vitamin C has been used to treat a lot of different diseases. For example, it is used to shorten the length and severity of the common cold. Of course, the best source is food, but if you need to, a supplement can help you reach your goals. Before you take one, talk to your doctor. The right dose depends on several things; this vitamin can affect how some drugs work.

Where to Buy?

You can find it at grocery stores, health food stores, and online.


This information is not meant to provide medical advice or replace a personal physician’s advice or treatment. All readers of this information, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should check with their doctors before initiating any nutrition, supplement, or lifestyle program. In addition, the statements and goods on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Vitamin B: Benefits, Sources, Recommendation, and Deficiency.


 These vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that all play essential roles in cellular metabolism and good health. Its sources are yeast, the beginnings of seeds, eggs, liver, meat, and vegetables.


• B1 (thiamine). Its sources are pork, sunflower seeds, and wheat germ are among the most nutritious foods.

• Vitamin B2. Riboflavin-rich foods include organ meats, beef, and mushrooms.

• B3 (niacin). It is involved in cellular signaling, metabolism, and the production and repair of DNA. Chicken, tuna, and lentils are examples of food sources.

• B5 (pantothenic acid). Pantothenic acid, like other vitamins, helps your body obtain energy from food and is involved in hormone and cholesterol production. Good sources include liver, fish, yogurt, and avocado.

 B6 (pyridoxine). This vitamin breaks down amino acids, makes red blood cells, and makes neurotransmitters. 

• B7 (biotin). Foods such as yeast, eggs, salmon, cheese, and liver are sources of this vitamin.

• B9 (folate). Abundant in foods such as leafy greens, liver, beans, and folic acid supplements.

• B12 (cobalamin). It is the most commonly known vitamin, and it is essential for neurological function, DNA production, and red blood cell development. Sources are fortified cereal, beef, tuna, sardines, eggs, fortified yeast, milk, and salmon.

 Benefits Of Vitamin B

  •  Immune system booster – Vitamin B1 is known as an anti-stress vitamin because it works to protect the immune system.
  •  May reduce inflammation.
  •  Stimulate red blood cell growth – These vitamins are for cell production and development. These cells are essential for bodily function because they transport oxygen to tissues throughout the body.
  •  Reduce the adverse effects of stress – B vitamins aid in the production of norepinephrine, a hormone that aids stress management.
  • It boosts our energy naturally- We all require these vitamins to convert the food we eat into energy that our bodies can use. 
  • It promotes healthy memory and brain function.
  • It promotes good skin and hair health- These vitamins are necessary for maintaining skin health and preventing hair thinning and loss.
  •  May reduce stroke risk – Research has linked these vitamins to a lower risk of stroke. 
  •  May help prevent migraines – A recent study looked at vitamin B-2 on migraines and found it was well-tolerated and effective at reducing migraine frequency in adults.
  •  Improve cell health – Vitamin B1 is essential for cell growth, development, and function, and vitamin B2 aids in the fight against free radicals, which are particles in the body that cause cell damage.

Adverse Effects

  •  High blood sugar levels. Taking enormous amounts of nicotinic acid, a synthetic form of vitamin B3 raises blood sugar. In addition, it can interfere with diabetes medications. Therefore, high nicotinic acid doses should not be utilized by people with diabetes or high blood sugar (measuring 1,000 mg or more).
  • Nicotinic acid excess. Nicotinic acid overdose can also result in low blood pressure, fatigue, headaches, rashes, and liver damage.
  •  Nicotinamide excess. High doses of nicotinamide, another form of vitamin B3, can result in diarrhea and bleeding. Amounts greater than 3,000 mg may result in vomiting and liver damage.
  •  Excessive folic acid taking more than 1,000 mcg per day can mask anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12.
  • A high-dose B-complex supplement can also cause the urine to turn bright yellow. However, this is a temporary and innocuous effect. The color will return to normal once the kidneys have eliminated the excess vitamins.


According to a trusted source, the recommended daily intake for women is:

  • B1: 1.1 mg
  • B2: 1.1 mg
  • B3: 14 mg NE
  • B5: 5 mg
  • B6: 1.3 mg
  • Biotin: 30 mcg
  • Folic acid: 400 mcg 
  • B12: 2.4 mcg

For men’s daily intake:

  • B1: 1.2 mg
  • B2: 1.3 mg
  • B3: 16 mg 
  • B5: 5 mg
  • B6: 1.3 mg
  • Biotin: 30 mcg
  • Folic acid: 400 mcg 
  • B12: 2.4 mcg

Some older people and women who are pregnant may need more B vitamins. Your doctor can tell you how much to take based on your needs.

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • Memory loss
  • Behavioral changes
  • Mental health problems
  • Shortness of breath
  • Decreases red blood cells
  • Pale skin
  • Indigestion
  • Heart palpitation

Where to Buy

You can find it at grocery stores, health food stores, and online.

Disclaimer of  Medicine

This information is not meant to provide medical advice or replace a personal physician’s advice or treatment. All readers of this information, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should check with their doctors before initiating any nutrition, supplement, or lifestyle program. In addition, the statements and goods on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Vitamin A: Functions, Sources, deficiency, dosage, and side effects

Contrary to popular belief, Vitamin A is a class of fat-soluble chemicals that includes retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. As a result, vitamin A is commonly regarded as a specific nutrient.

This vitamin comes in two forms: provitamin carotenoid found in plants and preformed vitamin found in animals. It is inactive and must be converted to retinal and retinoic acid before it can be helpful. In addition, it also dissolves in fat and stores it in the body’s tissues for later use.

The vast majority of this vitamin stored in our body is in the form of retinyl esters in the liver. Then, this ester dissolves into all-trans-retinol, which binds to retinol-binding protein.


  • It promotes cell growth, immune function, and fetal development and is beneficial to the eyes.
  • One of the most well-known benefits of this vitamin is that it helps maintain healthy eyes and vision.
  • It also aids in the maintenance of surface tissues such as the skin, intestines, lungs, bladder, and inner ear.
  • As a result of its antioxidant properties, carotenoids-rich fruits and vegetables may protect against cancer.
  • A study shows that retinoids can inhibit the growth of cancer cells, including bladder, breast, and ovarian cancer cells.
  • As it aids in forming sperm and eggs, vitamin A is essential for male and female reproduction.
  • It is essential for pregnant women’s health, developing children, and those trying to conceive.


Insufficient of this vitamin is not common in developed countries, unlike in developing countries where people have limited access to preformed vitamin and provitamin carotenoids in their diets.

  • Based on the World Health Organization, deficiency of this vitamin is the primary cause of preventable blindness in children worldwide.
  • A lack of this vitamin also increases the severity of illnesses like measles, diarrhea, and the risk of death.
  • A deficiency of this vitamin hurts the fetus by slowing growth and development, increasing the risk of anemia and death in pregnant women.
  • Skin problems such as hyperkeratosis and acne are less severe symptoms of vitamin A deficiency.
  • Premature infants, people with cystic fibrosis, and expecting or breastfeeding women in developing countries are all at risk of this vitamin deficiency.

Food resources

A variety of foods contain preformed vitamin and provitamin carotenoids. However, your body utilizes plant-based carotenoids less readily absorbed and used than preformed vitamins.

Genetics, food, overall health, and drugs influence your body’s ability to change carotenoids, such as beta carotene, into suitable forms of this vitamin. As a result, vegans and others who follow a plant-based diet should be cautious about consuming enough carotenoid-rich foods. The following foods contain preformed vitamins:

  • Eggs’ yolks
  • Bovine liver
  • Liverwurst
  • Butter
  • Liver oil from fish
  • A chicken’s liver
  • Salmon
  • Cheddar cheese
  • Liver-based sausage
  • King of the mackerel
  • Trout
  • Carotenoids in vitamins are given below:
  • Sweet potato
  • pumpkin
  • Carrots
  • kale
  • Spinach
  • Dandelions greens
  • Collards and greens
  • Cantaloupe
  • Papaya
  • Red bell peppers

 Dosage recommendation

 The required Dietary Allowance for vitamin A is 900 mcg for men and 700 mcg for women per day. If you eat a lot of natural foods, you can quickly meet this intake level. A well-balanced diet is an excellent way to ensure that your body receives adequate amounts of this essential vitamin. Conversely, it can have severe or even fatal consequences. If pregnant, do not take this vitamin without consulting your doctor.

Moreover, infants require it for normal development, but excessive amounts can result in congenital disabilities. Therefore, you may need to take a prenatal vitamin designed for pregnant women. Consult your doctor before using this medication if you are breastfeeding. The dose requirements may change while you are nursing.

Toxicity levels

To avoid toxicity, adults should not exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) per day. Though consuming too much-preformed vitamins from animal sources such as the liver is possible, toxicity is more commonly associated with over-supplementation and treatment with drugs such as isotretinoin. In addition, this vitamin is fat-soluble, stored in our body, and can accumulate to dangerous levels over time. Acute toxicity develops quickly after ingesting a single extremely high vitamin. Chronic toxicity happens when more than ten times the RDA is taken over a long period. Although less common than chronic toxicity, acute toxicity is associated with more severe symptoms such as liver damage, elevated cranial pressure, and even death. To avoid toxicity, refrain from taking a high-dose supplement containing this vitamin. Ask a healthcare professional before taking the supplements because too much of this vitamin can be dangerous. The toxicity can cause liver damage, vision problems, nausea, and even death. If you’re taking high-dose supplements, make sure a doctor prescribes them.


How to consume

Follow the label’s instructions or the advice of your doctor. A vitamin A injection is given to a muscle. A healthcare provider can administer the injection if you cannot take the medication orally. Please read the information that came with the vitamin carefully and follow it. If you are unsure about something, consult your doctor or pharmacist. The recommended dietary amount of this vitamin increases with age. Ask a health professional if you have concerns about providing a child with this vitamin. The pill should not be crushed, chewed, broken, or opened; instead, it should be swallowed whole. Combining similar vitamin preparations may result in a vitamin overdose or other dangerous side effects. Store at room temperature, and keep moisture, heat, and light away.

Side effects

If you have hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or neck, seek medical attention immediately. When you notice these signs, call your doctor:

  • High fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • Extreme exhaustion
  • Swings in mood
  • Nausea, vomiting, and appetite loss
  • Changes in your menstrual cycle
  • Perplexity or irritability
  • The occurrence of double vision
  • Soreness in the mouth and bleeding gums
  • Convulsion,
  • Hair loss, peeling skin, and skin discoloration.

A high dose in children can result in:

  • Growth problems in children
  • Drowsiness, including loss of consciousness and vision problems.
  • High fever and chills
  • Mucus cough, chest pain, and breathing difficulty
  • Vomiting, nausea, or diarrhea
  • Blister

Where to Buy

You can find it at grocery stores, health food stores, and online.


This information is not meant to provide medical advice or replace a personal physician’s advice or treatment. All readers of this information, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should check with their doctors before initiating any nutrition, supplement, or lifestyle program. In addition, the statements and goods on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.